Here I will compare main 3D renderers for PC.
PlayStation has its own renderer and XBox is using DirectX.
For Nintendo Switch, you can use OpenGL and Vulkan.
Operating systems (GLFW): PSGL for PlayStation 3 but there is no followup for PlayStation 4.
Old1992 - 2008
At this time, we had no custom shaders or buffers. All shaders were predefined. For rendering you had to write all vertex data on separate lines startign with
glBegin(...);and ending with
glTexCoord2f(...); glColor4f(...); glNormal3f(...); glVertex3f(...);
Modern2008 - now
Modern OpenGL means that we can use buffers for render and write our own shaders.
OpenGL 3.0 was first Modern OpenGL which came with some difficulties which were fixed in 3.2 and 3.3
Considered to by
Minimum Modern OpenGL Versionnot only because of new version of shaders but also because better support of buffers.
OpenGL added more features which used to be in extensions and now can be used for easier development and optimization and Tessellation support.
Vulkan is not OpenGL 5 because OpenGL is still in development. It can be compared to DirectX 12 with features and to OpenGL with compatibility and platforms.
DirectX1995 - now
82000, Windows 2000
DirectX 8 can be compared to Modern OpenGL because it was a huge step in 3D render.
It came with first version(s) of shaders.
92002, Windows XP
You can compare DirectX 8 to 9 here or here.
Direct X 9 brought Shader 2.0 with increased number of instructions which was extremely increased in Direct X 9.0c and Shader 3.0.
102006, Windows Vista
DirectX 10 is officially Major Update.
It came with DirectX 9 compatibility and (again) new version of Shader (4.0) which changed structure of graphics chips.
112009, Windows Vista
DirectX 11 also has support for DirectX 9 (and 10) and introduced (better) multithreading.
There also came Tessellation support.
122015, Windows 10
DirectX came with better optimizations which also applies for Virtual reality.
Stack OverflowWhat's so different about OpenGL 3.x?
Difference between OpenGL 3.x and 4.X?
Which consoles may I target with OpenGL?
Transferring my OpenGL PC game to PS4 and/or XBox One